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Biology 03050, Invertebrate Zoology


Lab manual: Hickman et al., 9th ed., Exercise 7, pp. 109-116; Exercise 8


WORD BANK (terms that you are responsible for):

  1. amebocyte (ameboid cell)
  • choanocyte (collar cell)
  • cilia
  • contractile vacuole
  • excurrent canal
  • flagellated chamber
  • food vacuole
  • gemmule
  • incurrent canal
  • macronucleus
  • mesohyl
  • micronucleus
  • oral groove
  • osculum
  • ostium, -ia (pore)
  • Paramecium, ciliate
  • Pellicle
  • plasma membrane
  • pinacocyte (covering cell)
  • Plasmodium (trophozoite or feeding stage), sporozoan
  • radial canal
  • spicule
  • sponge
  • spongin
  • spongocoel
  • stalk
  • Stentor, ciliate
  • trichocyst
  • Vorticella, ciliate
  • Using your lab manual for guidance, perform those parts of Exercise 7 and 8 listed below:

    1. Exercise 7C: Plasmodium: your instructor will set up a demonstration slide of the signet-ring trophozoite (feeding) stage, as they are hard to find in the blood smears. Be aware of the malaria parasite life cycle--what are the infectious and disease-causing stages?
    2. Exercise 7D: examine live Parameciums with Protoslo and follow up with a stained, prepared slide for additional structural details. Please also examine live and stained slides of Stentor and Vorticella. How are these ciliates similar? How are they different?
    3. Exercise 8A: read the introduction to the sponges. Examine a whole specimen of Sycon (Scypha, Grantia). Use prepared slides to study the canal system of such a sponge. Look at slides of spicules. Contrast a primitive sponge with the skeleton of a bath sponge (available to hold and manipulate). Look at a slide of the spongin protein that makes a bath sponge so flexible. Examine a slide of the wall of a commercial sponge--how do the chambers compare to those of Sycon? What is the advantage of this extra complexity? Find a commercial sponge and a bath sponge of approximately equal weights. Which one tends to hold water better than the other, and why--does this help to answer the previous question? Finally, examine a slide of a gemmule--what does it represent?

    Thought exercise: last week, you looked at amoeboid organisms (Amoeba), amoeboid organisms that could secrete hard shells (foraminiferan), flagellated organisms (Euglena), and colonial flagellated organisms (Volvox). How might a combination of such protist cell types have been involved in the evolution of sponges?

    Your instructor may base homework and/or quizzes on questions posed in this handout or in the assigned reading.



    |main page| |background| |03028: Physiology| |03048: Anatomy|

    |03050: Invertebrate Zoology| |03051: Vertebrate Zoology| |03074: Economic Botany|


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    This page updated October 8, 1999