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Biology 03050, Invertebrate Zoology

Handout for Laboratory 11: ARTHROPODS; UNIRAMIANS

Lab Manual: Hickman et al., 9th ed., Exercise 16, pp. 227-249


WORD BANK (terms that you are responsible for). Please note that all orders with specimens available to view in lab are listed. Your instructor may decide to alter the list of the insect orders that you are responsible for.

  1. abdomen
  • antenna, -ae
  • anus
  • cercus, -i
  • Class Chilopoda: centipedes
  • Class Diplopoda: millipedes
  • Class Insecta: insects
  • egg
  • exoskeleton
  • eye, compound
  • eye, simple (ocelli)
  • forewing
  • head
  • hindwing
  • labrum
  • larva
  • mandible
  • maxilla, -ae (first and second)
  • maxilliped
  • metamorphosis, complete (holometabolous development)
  • metamorphosis, incomplete (gradual, hemimetabolous development)
  • myriapod
  • nymph
  • Order Anoplura: sucking lice
  • Order Coleoptera: beetles, weevils
  • Order Collembola: springtails
  • Order Diptera: flies, gnats, mosquitos
  • Order Hemiptera: true bugs
  • Order Homoptera: leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids
  • Order Hymenoptera: bees, wasps, ants
  • Order Isoptera: termites
  • Order Lepidoptera: butterflies, moths
  • Order Odonata: dragonflies, damselflies
  • Order Orthoptera: grasshoppers, crickets, roaches
  • Order Siphonaptera: fleas
  • Order Thysanoptera: thrips
  • ovipositor
  • palp
  • pupa
  • spiracle
  • thorax
  • trachea
  • trunk
  • tympanum
  • walking legs
  • Using your lab manual, perform those parts of Exercise 16 listed below:

    16A: Examine external features of preserved centipedes and millipedes. What are their lifestyles, and how do they differ externally?

    16B: Examine external structures of the lubber grasshopper, highlighting the terms listed above.

    16C: Given that the internal structure of the lubber grasshopper is not the clearest, we will forgo dissection in this laboratory.

    16D: Know the differences between incomplete/gradual metamorphosis and complete metamorphosis by looking at prepared life cycle specimens

    16E: Be prepared to identify major common insect orders listed above, or others that your instructor may ask for. This can be done by the mounted specimens, the slides, or preserved specimens.


    To round out our understanding of this major facet of invertebrates, there will be two additional activities in lab this week: 1) trip to the HVCC scanning electron microscope (SEM) to visualize arthropods at a much different level, and 2) watch the"Eyewitness: Insects" video (a study guide is part of this laboratory handout).

    Your instructor may assign you additional questions from the lab manual as homework and/or as quiz questions.

    Your notes and drawings below (or more likely, on a separate sheet of paper!)



    1. There are more variety of ____________________ than any other kind of animal, with approximately _______________ of them for every human being.
    2. Insects have three things in common:
    1. a body with three major sections of:
    2. ____________________, ______________________, and ______________________

    3. _______________________________________________________

    4. _______________________________________________________
    1. Instead of an internal skeleton, insects have an ___________________________________________.
    2. The exoskeleton design allows insects to reach enormous sizes. true false
    3. Breathing takes place through holes known as ________________________, and the insect is limited to about ____________________ in size because of breathing through tubes (tracheae) without lungs.
    4. Insect fossils date back at least ____________________ million years.
    5. Insects have _______________________________ well to the presence of human beings.
    6. Our fruit crops are dependent on insect _____________________________________.
    7. Over the last 100 million years, insects and flowering plants have ____________________________.
    8. Insects consume up to _________________________ percent of crops world-wide.
    9. Insects reproduce in vast numbers. true false
    10. While some insects (e.g., aphids), can reproduce asexually, most insects reproduce sexually by ____________________________________________. This allows for genetic variation in the next generation, or hence the possibility of evolution from natural selection.
    11. The stages of complete metamorphosis are:
    12. _______________, ___________________, ___________________, and _____________________.
    13. Arguably, the most profound adaptation of insects are their __________________________.
    14. The aquatic larva of dragonflies and damselflies is known as a _________________________.
    15. After two or three years, the nymph emerges from the water to molt into an adult in a process known as: _______________________________ _________________________________.
    16. ___________________ helps to extend the wings.
    17. The ___________________ eye of insects have multiple facets. These compound eyes are very good at picking up movements.
    18. Insects such as the cricket communicate by _________________________. In contrast, other insects like moths communicate by chemicals known as ___________________________.
    19. Bright colors like _____________ and ________________ are associated with poisonous animals.
    20. Honey is important to bees because (two major reasons):

    22. Caterpillars have ____________________ jaws to cut through leaves, while butterflies and moths have ___________________ to sip nectar from flowers.

    23. Flies have a ________________ shaped mouth to sop up food.
    24. The ____________ fly can bite and spread African sleeping sickness.
    25. Rat-dwelling ________________ helped to spread bubonic plague, which killed off about ____________ (fraction) of Europe's population in the fourteenth century.
    26. Leafcutter ants will take the leaves underground to grow __________________________.
    27. ______________________ can make tall,"skyscraper" type structures for their colonies.
    28. The only fertile female in a termite colony is the ___________________. She can lay up to ___________________ eggs a day.
    29. Broad-spectrum insecticides can ________________ both beneficial and pest insects. What can happen after multiple sprayings?
    30. In the end, though, insects are not only major pollinators, but also _______________________________.


    |main page| |background| |03028: Physiology| |03048: Anatomy|

    |03050: Invertebrate Zoology| |03051: Vertebrate Zoology| |03074: Economic Botany|


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    This page updated October 25, 1999