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Study Guide for VT 1174,"Life on Earth: Building Bodies"

The focus on this video is on Phyla Cnidaria, with extensions to Phylum Platyhelminthes and Phylum Brachiopoda (a minor phylum that we will not examine in this course, but that has a superficial resemblance to Phylum Mollusca: see Ch. 24 [7th ed]., pp. 528-539).

  1. A major means to study invertebrate relationships is to: _________________________________
  2. Jellyfish appeared early late in the history of life, as seen in the fossil record.
  3. A colony of polyps that looks like a jellyfish is the :_____________________________________
  4. To avoid having its float dry out and overheat, a Portuguese man-of-war will do what?

  6. The tentacles on the man-of-war are all very short. T F

  7. All jellyfish and other members of Phylum Cnidaria contain cells specialized for _____________________.
  8. From the coiled, barbed tube of the nematocyst drips _____________________________________.
  9. Fossils similar to the Portuguese man-of-war have been found in rocks from ______________ million years ago.
  10. In rocks of a similar age are found fossils of cnidarians known as __________ _______________.
  11. Modern-day sea pens resemble look nothing like these fossil organisms.
  12. The skeleton of the sea pen is ____________________________________________. As a result, a sea pen is part of the cnidarians known as the ____________ _______________ (part of Class Anthozoa).
  13. Which can live in deeper waters? soft corals stony (hard) corals
  14. Where do the polyps live in (stony) corals?

  16. An individual coral polyp contains what plant-like organisms? ________________________

  17. These help the coral polyp in two major ways (note: limestone is calcium carbonate, CaCO3)

  19. All corals look alike. T F

  20. With the fossil evidence at hand, there appears that there was a gap in the geological record before animals made shells. One possible reason for this was:

  22. A larva of a cnidarian (planula) has a similar appearance to a juvenile _________________.

  23. Flatworms can move with the help of ________________________.
  24. Flatworms have definite front and back ends, which is consistent with what kind of symmetry? _________________________
  25. Flatworms are very flat. What is the advantage of that?

  27. In addition to cilia, many flatworms move with their __________________________________________________.

  28. Is the flatness of the flatworms good for burrowing? Yes No
  29. What are two major life style considerations for burrowing into the mud?


  31. Other worms use tentacles and cilia for: ______________________________________
  32. Evidently, some of these filter-feeding worms developed _______________________ to protect the tentacles. A major fossil group that did this was the brachiopods. The"living fossil" brachiopod Lingula (the one being dug up by the Japanese fishermen) hasn't changed appearance much (or at least its shell hasn't changed appearance much) in 400+ million years.
  33. Brachiopods are more common as fossils than they are today. T F.
  34. What very common shelled organisms have outcompeted the brachiopods to become a dominant invertebrate phylum of today? __________________________________


|main page| |background| |03028: Physiology| |03048: Anatomy|

|03050: Invertebrate Zoology| |03051: Vertebrate Zoology| |03074: Economic Botany|


Please send comments and questions to: cronewil@hvcc.edu


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This page updated on October 8, 1999